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Парвовирусная инфекция собак. Энтерит у собак



Парвовирусная инфекция собак (энтерит у собак) - это вирусная болезнь, проявляющаяся рвотой, геморрагическим энтеритом, миокардитом, лейкопенией, дегидратацией и гибелью щенков моложе 5 месячного возраста. Поражения локализуются в тонком кишечнике и лимфоидных тканях. Различают бактериальные и вирусные энтериты.

Чувствительность собак к парвовирусу зависит не от породы и пола, а от возраста. Наиболее восприимчивы к заболеванию щенки, полученные от не вакцинированных сук, в возрасте от 2 до 16 недель, но могут болеть и взрослые животные.

Источником инфекции служат больные собаки, которые выделяют вирус во внешнюю среду с фекалиями, а также вирусоносители. Заражение происходит алиментарным (фекально-оральным) и аэрогенным путями передачи. Также возможно трансплацентарное заражение.

При естественном заражении инкубационный период длится до 10 дней, а при экспериментальном 3-4 дня. У 1-2 недельных щенков инкубационный период может составлять 1-3 дня. Летальность щенков в возрасте 4-5 месяцев обычно составляет 25-30 процентов, но может достигать и 80%.

Выделение вируса начинается с калом через 3-5 дней при пероральной инфекции и длится приблизительно 12 дней, редко до 25 дней. Другие выделения также могут быть заразными. Выделение вируса собаками с субклиническим течением заболевания играет значительную роль в эпизоотологии инфекции.

Парвовирус собак инфицирует быстро делящиеся клетки. Именно это определяет патогенез заболевания. Наиболее часто поражаются клетки лимфатической системы, кишечника и костного мозга. У щенков младше 4 недель вирус поражает миоциты (клетки сердечной мышцы).

Разрушение кишечного эпителия приводит к серьезной геморрагической диарее. Инфекция миелопрогенических клеток костного мозга и прямая инфекция лимфатических клеток способствует развитию лейкопении. При внутриутробном инфицировании или вскоре после рождения происходит разрушение кардиальных клеток, приводя к миокардиту и гибели новорожденных щенков.

Выделяют три формы болезни: сердечную (наблюдается у собак в возрасте от 3-8 недель), кишечную - чаще регистрируется у животных от 8-9 недель и комбинированную - преимущественно отмечается в возрасте 6-16 недель.

Развитие того или иного синдрома, основанное на способности вируса размножаться в активно делящихся клетках, связано с возрастом щенков: до 3-х недельного возраста у них активно делятся клетки миокарда, а после - кишечника.

Вкусопоощрительный метод основан на пищевом раздражителе. Так, обучая собаку приему посадки, дрессировщик показывает ей лакомство, которое держит в руке, поднятой над её головой. Желая получить лакомство, собака, чтобы лучше видеть его, садится и в тот же момент получает лакомство. При этом методе легко устанавливается контакт между дрессировщиком и собакой и быстро образуется вырабатываемый у неё условный рефлекс. Недостаток вкусопоощрительного метода состоит в том, что он не обеспечивает безотказности в работе собаки. Постоянно подкармливаемая собака теряет интерес к занятиям и выполняет команды неохотно, неточно и без необходимой выдержки. Этот метод нередко практикуется при обучении комнатных собак игровым навыкам.

Сердечная форма (миокардитная) характеризуется прежде всего острым поражением миокарда (вирусный миокардит) и наблюдается, как правило, у щенят в возрасте от 2 до 8 недель. Болезнь наступает внезапно и протекает молниеносно. Щенки отказываются от корма и воды, не могут самостоятельно сосать молоко у матери. У больных животных наблюдают резкую слабость, одышку, сердечно - сосудистую недостаточность; пульс аритмичный, слабого наполнения. Щенки погибают в течение 24-48 ч в состоянии коллапса(резкого падения артериального давления).

Кишечная форма (интестинальная) - наиболее типичная форма парвовирусного энтерита. Протекает обычно в острой, иногда в подострой формах. Главными признаками болезни являются длительная и неукротимая рвота, повторяющаяся многократно в течение нескольких суток, полный отказ от корма (анорексия) и воды. Необходимо подчеркнуть, что в отличие от других кишечных вирусных болезней (чума плотоядных, инфекционный гепатит и др.) при парвовирусном энтерите собаки в течение 1-3 дней не пьют воду, молоко и другие жидкости. Это обусловлено обширными катаральными или геморрагическими поражениями тонкого и толстого кишечника, которые вызывают резкую боль.

Диарея (понос) появляется у животных через 1-3 дня после начала рвоты и продолжается от 2 до 10 дней. Каловые массы первоначально слизистые, затем становятся водянистыми, кровавыми с характерным зловонным запахом. Неукротимая рвота и длительный понос вызывают сильное обезвоживание организма и соответственно - глубокие нарушения внутреннего баланса организма (гомеостаза, относительного динамического постоянства внутренней среды и устойчивости основных физиологических функций организма). У больных животных отмечают резкую слабость, значительное истощение, сердечно - сосудистую и легочную недостаточность и др.

Смешанная (комбинированная) форма болезни характеризуется различными поражениями сердечно - сосудистой, пищеварительной и дыхательной систем организма. Наблюдается у животных с ослабленной иммунной системой, у щенят, полученных от не вакцинированных сук, а также при наличии ассоциированных инфекций (адено-, корона-, ротавирусных и др.). Клинические признаки болезни весьма многообразны. Кроме описанных выше симптомов дополнительно отмечают катаральные воспаления верхних и нижних дыхательных путей.

Температура тела при острой форме болезни в начальной стадии часто повышается до 40-41,5°С, сохраняется на этом уровне 2-3 дня, затем или постепенно нормализуется (благоприятный прогноз), или быстро снижается ниже 37°С (летальный, или неблагоприятный прогноз).

Гематологические показатели (показатели крови) в первые 2-5 дней характеризуются выраженной лейкопенией (2-4 тыс. в 1 мм3 крови), а также снижением моноцитов. В дальнейшем при благоприятном прогнозе наблюдают сдвиг лейкоцитарной формулы влево, значительный лейкоцитоз (свыше 20 тыс. в 1 мм3) и моноцитоз. Некоторые случаи заболевания напоминают чуму плотоядных или инфекционный гепатит. У отдельных животных после появления рвоты и энтерита развиваются признаки поражения респираторной системы.

Энтерит собак клинически напоминает панлейкопению кошек. Предполагается, что он может быть мутантной формой кошачьего вируса. Существуют данные, что около 10% случаев панлейкопении кошек вызвано парвовирусом собак. Парвовирус собак и вирус панлейкопении кошек различаются менее чем на 1% по нуклеотидной последовательности ДНК. Парвовирус собак имеет родство с парвовирусами крыс, свиней и мышей. При электронной микроскопии парвовирус собак и вирус панлейкопении кошек не различимы, однако они различаются способностью размножаться в различных культурах клеток.

Вирус обладает высокой устойчивостью к нагреванию (стабилен при нагревании до 60 градусов в течение 1 часа, кислой среде, дезинфектантам, воздействию факторов внешней среды. Устойчив к действию: эфира, спирта, хлороформа и чувствителен к гипохлориду натрия, 2% раствору едкого натра , 0.2% раствор уксусной кислоты и соде.) Возбудитель очень устойчив в окружающей среде и при комнатной температуре может сохраняться в инфицированных объектах в течение 6 месяцев.Вирус обладает высокой устойчивостью к нагреванию (стабилен при нагревании до 60 градусов в течение 1 часа, кислой среде, дезинфектантам, воздействию факторов внешней среды. Устойчив к действию: эфира, спирта, хлороформа и чувствителен к гипохлориду натрия, 2% раствору едкого натра , 0.2% раствор уксусной кислоты и соде.) Возбудитель очень устойчив в окружающей среде и при комнатной температуре может сохраняться в инфицированных объектах в течение 6 месяцев.

Диагностика энтерита у собак

Предварительный диагноз может быть поставлен на основании эпизоотологических данных и таких клинических признаков, как внезапность появления болезни, наличие рвоты, геморрагический энтерит, обезвоживание организма, а иногда лейкопения. Из патологоанатомических изменений чаще всего наблюдают острое катаральное геморрагическое воспаление в тонком отделе кишечника. Мезентериальные лимфоузлы почти всегда увеличенные, отечные и геморрагичные.

Окончательно диагноз устанавливают лабораторными методами. Наиболее распространенный — обнаружение вируса в фекалиях больной собаки методом ПЦР, взятых в течение острого периода болезни. Для обнаружения антигена вируса применяют РГА (реакция гемагглютинации). При получении положительных результатов идентифицируют возбудителя в РТГА с использованием моноспецифической сыворотки.

Гистологический анализ применяют при посмертной диагностике. Устанавливают некроз эпителиоцитов крипт, уменьшение количества лимфоцитов в органах лимфоиднои ткани тонкого отдела кишечника.

За последние годы широкое применение при диагностике парвовирусного энтерита собак получил ИФА (иммуноферментный анализ). Высока чувствительность и ПЦР. В диагностике заболевания используют электронную микроскопию. Материалом для исследований служат фекалии больных собак.

Дифференциальная диагностика энтерита

Энтериты у собак бывают различной этиологии — алиментарной, токсической, паразитарной, бактериальной, вирусной.

Диареи алиментарного происхождения встречаются спорадически, иногда сопровождаются рвотой и имеют благоприятный исход.

Гастроэнтериты могут быть следствием интоксикации различными веществами: аспирином, нафталином, мышьяком, органическим фосфором, свинцом и др. В большинстве случаев интоксиканты вызывают специфический запах. Как правило, наряду с рвотой и энтеритом появляются конвульсии и другие нервные расстройства.

Гастроэнтериты паразитарного происхождения вызываются цестодами, нематодами (аскаридами, анкилостомами, стронгилами), кокцидиями, лямблиями. Болезнь появляется внезапно, не сопровождается общим угнетением, но осложняет клиническое течение парвовирусного энтерита у собак, особенно у щенят.

Из бактериальных инфекций надо прежде всего исключить эшерихиоз у щенят. При данной инфекции фекалии становятся жидкими и болезнь длится несколько дней. Сальмонеллез у собак встречается довольно редко, даже если они являются носителями вобудителя. Болеет в основном молодняк, но животные очень редко погибают. Из энтеритов вирусного происхождения при дифференциальной диагностике надо исключить коронавирусный энтерит собак. Клинические признаки болезни сходны с парвовирусным энтеритом. Болеют собаки всех возрастов, но чаще щенки. Рвота предшествует диарее, а иногда возникает одновременно с ней. Обычно через 1...2 дня она прекращается. Фекалии становятся разжиженными, зловонными, желтовато-зеленого цвета с примесью слизи, а иногда крови. У молодых щенков организм обезвоживается. Температура тела не повышается.

При дифференциальной диагностике следует иметь в виду инфекционный гепатит, который у щенков по некоторым клиническим признакам сходен с парвовирусным энтеритом, температура тела повышается до 40...41 °С, иногда у животных регистрируют диарею с примесью крови.

Лечение энтерита у собак

Лечение парвовирусного энтерита тем успешнее, чем раньше оно будет начато. При своевременном обращении за помощью к специалистам вероятность благополучного исхода болезни достаточно велика.

В первую очередь следует применять этиотропную терапию, направленную на устранение причины заболевания. Из специфических средств на ранних стадиях эффективны поливалентные гипериммунные сыворотки против парвовирусного энтерита, аденовирусных инфекций и чумы собак, а также поливалентный иммуноглобулин в дозах, предусмотренных инструкцией по применению. В этих препаратах содержатся уже готовые антитела к вирусным инфекциям, при введении в организм животного они сразу же начинают борьбу с вирусом. Препараты вводят в начальной стадии болезни. Применять сыворотки после 3 дней, когда вирус уходит в ткани, практически бесполезно. Используют также иммуномодуляторы с противовирусной активностью (ронколейкин, фоспренил, риботан и проч.), анитбиотики, гастропротекторы и кристаллоидные и коллоидные растворы для восстановления объема жидкости в организме.

Дальнейшее лечение в основном направлено на восстановление всех жизненно важных функций организма.

Иммунитет, специфическая профилактика

Постинфекционный иммунитет формируется через 3-4 недели после переболевания и сохраняется, по всей видимости, до конца жизни.

Для специфической профилактики парвовирусного энтерита собак существуют инактивированные и живые моновалентные и ассоциированные вакцины, а также гипериммунные сыворотки и глобулины. Наиболее эффективными считаются вакцины: «Нобивак» и «Гексадог», «Эурикан», «Дюрамон», «Вангард». Для специфической профилактики болезни и лечения больных собак используют поливалентную сыворотку против чумы, парвовирусных инфекций и вирусного гепатита и «Гискан-5» или «Витакан-С». Продолжительность поствакцинального иммунитета 12 мес.


Дата публикации: 2011-06-05 15:05:29


© Механикова Надежда, анестезиолог, фельдшер
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